Frage #4460e

Antworten:

#n=4, l=0, m_l = 0, m_s = +1/2#

Erläuterung:

Ich gehe davon aus, dass Sie einen Quantensatz schreiben wollen, der die energiereichstes Elektron befindet sich in einem Kaliumatom, dh dem Element Valenzelektron.

Denken Sie für den Anfang daran, dass wir suchen vier Quantenzahlen, drei pflegten die Elektronen zu beschreiben Position im Atom und man verwendet, um seine zu beschreiben spinnen.

figures.boundless.com

Lassen Sie uns nun die Werte der vier Quantenzahlen mit der Taste ermitteln Periodensystem von verschiedenste Komponenten. Lassen Sie uns insbesondere die Tatsache nutzen, dass das Periodensystem ist organisiert in Blöcke.

http://www.meta-synthesis.com/webbook/34_qn/qn_to_pt.html

Kalium, #"K"#befindet sich in Periode 4, Gruppe 1, was bedeutet, dass Sie es in der finden s blockieren, hier gezeigt in #color(darkgreen)("darkgreen")#.

Man kann also sagen, dass Kaliums energiereichstes Elektron haben wird

#1)" " n = 4 -># the value of the principal quantum number is given by the period in which the element is located.

In this case, potassium is located in period 4, so its valence electron will have #n=4#.

#2)" "l = 0 -># the value of the angular momentum quantum number is given by the block in which the element is located.

Elements located in the s block will have their highest-energy electron located in the s subshell. As you know, the angular momentum quantum number can take the values

  • # l =0 -># the s subshell
  • #l = 1 -># the p subshell
  • #l=2 -># the d subshell
  • #l = 3 -># the f subshell

Therefore, you can say that potassium's valence electron will have #l=0#.

#3)" "m_l = 0 -># the magnetic quantum number can be determined using the group in which the element is located.

In this case, the s subshell can only hold one orbital, the s-orbital. This means that the value of #m_l#, which is determined by the value of #l#, can only be #m_l = 0#.

#4)# #" "m_s = +1/2 -># the spin quantum number is assigned by keeping in mind that each orbital can only hold two electrons, one having spin-up and one having spin-down.

In this case, the single electron located in the s-orbital is considered to have spin-up.

Daher kann man sagen, dass die Quantenzahl, die das energiereichste Elektron in einem Atom Kalium beschreibt, sein wird

#n = 4, l =0, m_l = 0, m_s = + 1/2#

This set describes an electron located in the fourth energy shell, in the s subshell, in the 4s orbital, that has spin-up.

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